Canada’s environmental protection at the federal, provincial and municipal levels of management. Usually, international environmental affairs are decided by the federal government, and inter-provincial environmental matters are coordinated by the federal government. The Federal Ministry of the Environment assumes the primary responsibility for environmental management, including the protection and promotion of the natural environment in Canada, the protection of renewable resources and the availability of water resources throughout the country, the implementation of border water laws in Canada and the United States, and timely and accurate meteorological forecasts And forecast, coordinate the federal government’s environmental projects and related policies. The Environment Department is headquartered in Gatineau, Quebec, Canada and has more than 100 community offices throughout the country. Canadian Department of Environment website: www.ec.gc.ca
The laws and regulations under the responsibility of the Ministry of Environment include the Canadian Water Act, the Canadian Wildlife Act, the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the Migration of Birds Convention Act, the National Weekly Wildlife Act, the Endangered Species Act, “Climate Change Information Act”, “Wildlife and Plant Protection Law” and so on.
- Canadian Environmental Protection Act， 1999
- Environmental Quality Act
- Canadian Environmental Assessment Act
- Water Legislation
- Plant Protection Act ( 1990， c. 22 )；
- Canada Wildlife Act(R.S.，1985，c.W-9)；
- Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act (2002，c.18)；
- Canada National Parks Act；
- Fisheries Act；
- Migrant Birds Act；
- Canadian Environmental Acts， Regulations and Guidelines；
- Nuclear Safety and Control Act；
- Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act (TDGA)。
- Legal framework: Environmental law falls within the common jurisdiction of the federal government of Canada, the provincial and local governments. In recent years, the federal government has become more active in environmental protection, but in many cases, each province has its own unique system of environmental protection.
- Pollution industry: Pollution of land and groundwater is mainly managed by the provinces. Although the Supreme Court of Canada recently decided to implement the legal principle of “who pollutes who pays,” real estate buyers may also be responsible for the pollution that preceded the purchase and for the resulting pollution that would otherwise be diverted elsewhere. Housing tenants should determine whether the tenancy agreement they signed includes the liability clause in this area. The people who own the mortgage right of property rights to the pollution source may also be regarded as “guardianship power” of the pollution source. Therefore, under the supervision of the provincial environment department, they must undertake the responsibility of liquidation and restoration in accordance with the procedures stipulated in the Environmental Quality Law. Environmental protection mechanisms include measures taken to completely ban the dumping of pollutants and the implementation of a permit or certificate system for activities that may affect the environment. Environmental regulation also includes regulation of noise pollution and stormwater and sewerage systems.
- Environmental Assessment: Generally speaking, an environmental impact assessment is required before the project is started or started. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act of the Federal Republic of Canada requires an environmental assessment of any project that involves federal funding or approval of the use of land, or requires federal permission and approval. Some projects need to pass provincial-level environmental assessments and hold public hearings.